Galina L. MIKIRTICHAN, head of Humanitarian Subjects and Biomedical Ethics Sub-department of Saint Petersburg State Pediatric Medical University, professor, Dr. Sci. (Med)
The report tells about the Empress Maria Feodorovna (1759-1828), the spouse of the Emperor Paul I of Russia, whose name is associated with the formation of the charity system covering three branches: public education, social welfare and health care. Being a head of the Educational Society for Noble Maidens(1796), she took henceforward a lot of pains and means to improve the existing foundling hospitals and create new-type foundations such as widow boarding houses, different hospitals, schools and colleges, specialized schools for blind and deaf-mute children, horticultural establishments, and etc. She developed rules for their functioning, took care of their provisions and health and life of their inhabitants and students. Maria Feodorovna’s character is described, that promoted success of her activity. After her death, the directorate of Empress Maria’s establishments received the name of the “Department of Empress Maria’s Establishments”.